Mauá Square marks the beginning of Avenida Rio Branco and also the Port of Rio de Janeiro, as the numbering of warehouses starts at the square. The center of the square is occupied by the statue of Irineu Evangelista de Sousa, the Baron/Viscount of Mauá, a pioneer in various areas of Brazil’s economy. The Baron/Viscount of Mauá, who also gives his name to the square, was responsible for the construction of the Mauá Railway and the creation of the Bank of Brazil, among other achievements. Placed on a column, the sculpture is the work of the sculptor Rodolfo Bernardelli and was inaugurated in 1910 by the initiative of the Engineering Club.

The Monument to the Viscount of Mauá in Rio de Janeiro City