The First Emperor of Brazil, Dom Pedro I, had a highly refined musical education, as was customary among the Bragança family. Among his teachers were Marcos Portugal and Sigismund Neukomm. He played the bugle, flute, violin, bassoon, trombone, and harpsichord.

Dom Pedro I, the composing emperor
Early Sounds of the Hymn of Independence, painting by Augusto Bracet.