The Mauá Railroad, officially known as the Imperial Steam Navigation and Petrópolis Railroad Company, was the first railway established in Brazil and the third in South America. It was built in 1854 by Irineu Evangelista de Sousa, Baron of Mauá. Initially, it connected the Port of Mauá to Fragoso, in Rio de Janeiro, with later extensions to Petrópolis and Areal.

The First Railroad in Brazil